24:2 Springett, Secret Sects of Syria, pp. His Deification:Strange as the apotheosis of al-Ḥakīm may seemespecially in view of the black picture left us by his biographiesyet the idea itself was not a novel one in Islam. The Muḥammadan Law Abrogated:Between unbridled allegorical interpretation of the law and its virtual suspension lies one short step, and that step was actually taken by Ḥamzah, the real founder of the Druze religion. 4 Their functions are not clearly defined in the Druze manuscripts, but seem to be of the missionary type. So did the Ismāīliyyah prophets. Druze abstain from wine and tobacco, as there are clear prohibitions against any practice that could involve profanity of their religion. Israel also has a sizeable community of Druze—about 150,000, located entirely in the northern portions of the country. In this dogma, as in the others, the Druzes were no originators. The Ismāīliyyah sect, from whose bosom Druzism sprang as did also the Assassins of Crusading fame, together with al-Qarāmiṭah, which between the ninth and twelfth centuries swept through Western Asia, had both venerated certain descendants of Ali and hailed them as infallible rulers of the world. The present study is based on twenty or more original manuscripts, many of which are in the Robert Garrett collection at Princeton University. A Series of Divine Incarnations:The guiding thought of Druze theogony, as it was with the Ismāīliyyah, is the belief in a succession of divine manifestations through a progressive series. 2 His freakishness only serves to intensify the belief in his superhuman character. Kamal Jumblatt, a prominent Druze leader, enjoyed broad appeal through his charisma. one of the most baffling in the history of religious thought. The Druze favorite name for themselves is Muwaḥḥidūn 3Unitariansbelievers in one and only one God. 25:1 True to the principle of taqiyyah, Ṣāliḥ ibn-Yaḥya, himself probably a Druze, from whose pen we have the best history of Beirūt (Tarīkh, ed. (See Appendix E.), The Neo-Platonic Source:We are evidently here in the atmosphere of the "emanation" theory which characterizes both Neo-Platonic 2 and Gnostic schools of philosophy and which must have filtered into the Druze system through Qarāmiṭah and "Brethren of Purity" channels. The Druze faith gradually died out in Egypt but survived in isolated areas of Syria and Lebanon, where missionaries had established significant communities. 42:1 Cairo edition (20 vols. RESPONSE: Great question! (No publication date available.) His office, as the Arabic name indicates, is one of breaking up and destroying. Nonetheless, despite their rivalry, the two families have at times put their differences aside and formed alliances to protect their common interests. 28:1 Mukhtaṣar al-Farq bayn al-Firaq, ed. The Uqqāl are also called "Sheikhs," 5 an Arabic word connoting old age, seniority and respect. 29:1 Abu-al-Fida, op. The Pythagorean origin of this system of computation is not difficult to detect. All of this is in connection with a proposed book on the Mandaeans. 32:3 Le mahométisme, le génie sémitique et le génie aryen dans lIslam (Paris, 1898), p. 112. The retina is the part of the eye that captures light and sends information to the brain. The influence of the Christian incarnation precedent must have been too widespread and too apparent to have escaped the attention of the early Moslem thinkers. The largest concentration of Druze in the present day is in Lebanon. 3, Excellence of Druze System:Each one of the Druze legislator-prophets abrogates in his turn the law of the preceding one. He is wise, mighty, just, &c., not by wisdom, might, justice, &c., but by his own essence. The "Propagator" assumes the rōle of the chief agent for the spreading of the faith. They lie not far from Bāniyās, ancient Caesarea Philippi. Meanwhile it enabled its adepts to appropriate from non-Moslem sources whatever suited their own convenience. 39:3 F. C. Burkitt, The Religion of the Manichees (Cambridge University Press, 1925), pp. I’m investigating the tangle of heterodox Jewish and Christian sects of the first centuries CE at the moment, and also some of the unusual Islamic sects who have a similar place in the Islamic tradition, such as the Druze or the Alawites. AMD is an … 6 Besides, there is no gainsaying the fact. 1 Likewise Bahā-al-Dīn, in his turn, identifies Ḥamzah with the Messiah. Below these inferior ministers stand the rank and file of Druze believers. 39-40. cit., pp. V, "Das Sektenwesen.". Although the idea was probably encouraged by al-Ḥākim himself, it was condemned as heresy by the Fāṭimid religious establishment, which held that al-Ḥākim and his predecessors were divinely appointed but not themselves divine. 34:3 There was a hierarchy of missionaries graded into Dāi, Madhūn, and Mukāsir. In its further development the "return" doctrine (parousia) gave rise to interesting eschatological ideas to which unbridled human fancies contributed their fantastic share. John had a much stricter diet (Luke 7:33) than did the Essenes. This Moslem Mahdi idea was subjected to Semitic Judaeo-Christian Messianic influences on the one hand, and, in its later development, to Iranian-Mandaean influences. They believe they are the descendants of the first disciples of Jesus. 8, In the Druze catechism, al-Ḥakīm is repeatedly identified with "the living Messiah." As a corollary to that, the Druzes consider all former religions, including Christianity, Judaism and. John preached Jesus as the Messiah. cit., II, 75; ibn-Khallikān, op. 3-4. In this they. Moreover, unlike the Jumblatts, the Arslans have enjoyed strong relations with Syria. of a Buddhist book. See Goldziher, Vorlesungen, pp. Despite the small size of their community, the Druze have figured prominently in Middle Eastern history. Unitarians:The Druze conception of the deity is declared by them to be one of strict and uncompromising unity. 1. 28:5 An early Druze MS. al-Radd ala al-Risālah al-Dāmighah li-al-Fāsiq al-Nuṣayri was written by Ḥamzah to refute the charges of a Nuṣayri. 29:6 Vorlesungen über den Islam (2nd ed., Heidelberg, 1925), pp. 32:6 Ibid., p. 16; al-Shahrastāni, op. The same double status applies to the "Pioneer." 4 The Zoroastrian influence is further shown by the reference to God as the "light" with the opposing principle as the "darkness." 39:1 "Insān Qadīm" in al-Fihrist, ed. For example the seven days, when they end they begin over again. Many of the Druze feudal families whose genealogies have been preserved by the two moder… The Israeli Druze are a religious and ethnic minority among Arab citizens of Israel. VI, 246-247. Find Druze Latest News, Videos & Pictures on Druze and see latest updates, news, information from NDTV.COM. April 2013 version. Likewise the legislative prophets are seven, their substitutes are seven and the intervening Imāms between one legislator and the other are seven." The Druze are a religious sect. 34:1 For this process of creation, see Mukhtaṣar al-Bayān fi Majra al-Zamān, MS. (translated in part by Guys, Théogonie des Druses, Paris, 1863, pp. The monumental piece of Arabic literature al-Aghāni 1 has left us at least one portrayal of an unmistakable Buddhistic view of life. This "hidden Imām" idea was carefully worked out by many of the extreme Shīah sects prior to Druzism, and reached its most elaborate expression as a doctrine in the Ismāīliyyah group. Indo-Iranian Influences:The problem of disentangling and sorting the different elementslabelling each Judaeo-Christian, Hellenistic or Zoroastrianwhich went into the make-up of the historic Shīah schisms is one bristling with difficulties and uncertainties. Another Druze revolt led to a national uprising and the overthrow of Pres. Regarding the mystic nature of the number seven, Bahā-al-Dīn reasons thus: "Everything when it gets to be seven ends and should be replaced by another. Guys, La Nation Druse, p. 69. The Druze faith is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion, and an ethnoreligious esoteric group originating from the Near East who self identify as unitarians (Arabic: موحدين , romanized: muwaḥḥidīn). Adam:Of special interest to us are Adam and Jesus who seem to stand above the other prophets and share in the divine essence. In 1957, the Israeli government designated the Druze a distinct ethnic community at the request of its communal leaders. 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