druze and essenes

24:2 Springett, Secret Sects of Syria, pp. His Deification:—Strange as the apotheosis of al-Ḥakīm may seem—especially in view of the black picture left us by his biographies—yet the idea itself was not a novel one in Islam. The Muḥammadan Law Abrogated:—Between unbridled allegorical interpretation of the law and its virtual suspension lies one short step, and that step was actually taken by Ḥamzah, the real founder of the Druze religion. 4 Their functions are not clearly defined in the Druze manuscripts, but seem to be of the missionary type. So did the Ismā‘īliyyah prophets. Druze abstain from wine and tobacco, as there are clear prohibitions against any practice that could involve profanity of their religion. Israel also has a sizeable community of Druze—about 150,000, located entirely in the northern portions of the country. In this dogma, as in the others, the Druzes were no originators. The Ismā‘īliyyah sect, from whose bosom Druzism sprang as did also the Assassins of Crusading fame, together with al-Qarāmiṭah, which between the ninth and twelfth centuries swept through Western Asia, had both venerated certain descendants of ‘Ali and hailed them as infallible rulers of the world. The present study is based on twenty or more original manuscripts, many of which are in the Robert Garrett collection at Princeton University. A Series of Divine Incarnations:—The guiding thought of Druze theogony, as it was with the Ismā‘īliyyah, is the belief in a succession of divine manifestations through a progressive series. 2 His freakishness only serves to intensify the belief in his superhuman character. Kamal Jumblatt, a prominent Druze leader, enjoyed broad appeal through his charisma. one of the most baffling in the history of religious thought. The Druze favorite name for themselves is Muwaḥḥidūn 3—Unitarians—believers in one and only one God. 25:1 True to the principle of taqiyyah, Ṣāliḥ ibn-Yaḥya, himself probably a Druze, from whose pen we have the best history of Beirūt (Ta’rīkh, ed. (See Appendix E.), The Neo-Platonic Source:—We are evidently here in the atmosphere of the "emanation" theory which characterizes both Neo-Platonic 2 and Gnostic schools of philosophy and which must have filtered into the Druze system through Qarāmiṭah and "Brethren of Purity" channels. The Druze faith gradually died out in Egypt but survived in isolated areas of Syria and Lebanon, where missionaries had established significant communities. 42:1 Cairo edition (20 vols. RESPONSE: Great question! (No publication date available.) His office, as the Arabic name indicates, is one of breaking up and destroying. Nonetheless, despite their rivalry, the two families have at times put their differences aside and formed alliances to protect their common interests. 28:1 Mukhtaṣar al-Farq bayn al-Firaq, ed. The ‘Uqqāl are also called "Sheikhs," 5 an Arabic word connoting old age, seniority and respect. 29:1 Abu-al-Fida, op. The Pythagorean origin of this system of computation is not difficult to detect. All of this is in connection with a proposed book on the Mandaeans. 32:3 Le mahométisme, le génie sémitique et le génie aryen dans l’Islam (Paris, 1898), p. 112. The retina is the part of the eye that captures light and sends information to the brain. The influence of the Christian incarnation precedent must have been too widespread and too apparent to have escaped the attention of the early Moslem thinkers. The largest concentration of Druze in the present day is in Lebanon. 3, Excellence of Druze System:—Each one of the Druze legislator-prophets abrogates in his turn the law of the preceding one. He is wise, mighty, just, &c., not by wisdom, might, justice, &c., but by his own essence. The "Propagator" assumes the rōle of the chief agent for the spreading of the faith. They lie not far from Bāniyās, ancient Caesarea Philippi. Meanwhile it enabled its adepts to appropriate from non-Moslem sources whatever suited their own convenience. 39:3 F. C. Burkitt, The Religion of the Manichees (Cambridge University Press, 1925), pp. I’m investigating the tangle of heterodox Jewish and Christian sects of the first centuries CE at the moment, and also some of the unusual Islamic sects who have a similar place in the Islamic tradition, such as the Druze or the Alawites. AMD is an … 6 Besides, there is no gainsaying the fact. 1 Likewise Bahā’-al-Dīn, in his turn, identifies Ḥamzah with the Messiah. Below these inferior ministers stand the rank and file of Druze believers. 39-40. cit., pp. V, "Das Sektenwesen.". Although the idea was probably encouraged by al-Ḥākim himself, it was condemned as heresy by the Fāṭimid religious establishment, which held that al-Ḥākim and his predecessors were divinely appointed but not themselves divine. 34:3 There was a hierarchy of missionaries graded into Dā‘i, Ma’dhūn, and Mukāsir. In its further development the "return" doctrine (parousia) gave rise to interesting eschatological ideas to which unbridled human fancies contributed their fantastic share. John had a much stricter diet (Luke 7:33) than did the Essenes. This Moslem Mahdi idea was subjected to Semitic Judaeo-Christian Messianic influences on the one hand, and, in its later development, to Iranian-Mandaean influences. They believe they are the descendants of the first disciples of Jesus. 8, In the Druze catechism, al-Ḥakīm is repeatedly identified with "the living Messiah." As a corollary to that, the Druzes consider all former religions, including Christianity, Judaism and. John preached Jesus as the Messiah. cit., II, 75; ibn-Khallikān, op. 3-4. In this they. Moreover, unlike the Jumblatts, the Arslans have enjoyed strong relations with Syria. of a Buddhist book. See Goldziher, Vorlesungen, pp. Despite the small size of their community, the Druze have figured prominently in Middle Eastern history. Unitarians:—The Druze conception of the deity is declared by them to be one of strict and uncompromising unity. 1. 28:5 An early Druze MS. al-Radd ‘ala al-Risālah al-Dāmighah li-al-Fāsiq al-Nuṣayri was written by Ḥamzah to refute the charges of a Nuṣayri. 29:6 Vorlesungen über den Islam (2nd ed., Heidelberg, 1925), pp. 32:6 Ibid., p. 16; al-Shahrastāni, op. The same double status applies to the "Pioneer." 4 The Zoroastrian influence is further shown by the reference to God as the "light" with the opposing principle as the "darkness." 39:1 "Insān Qadīm" in al-Fihrist, ed. For example the seven days, when they end they begin over again. Many of the Druze feudal families whose genealogies have been preserved by the two moder… The Israeli Druze are a religious and ethnic minority among Arab citizens of Israel. VI, 246-247. Find Druze Latest News, Videos & Pictures on Druze and see latest updates, news, information from NDTV.COM. April 2013 version. Likewise the legislative prophets are seven, their substitutes are seven and the intervening Imāms between one legislator and the other are seven." The Druze are a religious sect. 34:1 For this process of creation, see Mukhtaṣar al-Bayān fi Majra al-Zamān, MS. (translated in part by Guys, Théogonie des Druses, Paris, 1863, pp. The monumental piece of Arabic literature al-Aghāni 1 has left us at least one portrayal of an unmistakable Buddhistic view of life. This "hidden Imām" idea was carefully worked out by many of the extreme Shī‘ah sects prior to Druzism, and reached its most elaborate expression as a doctrine in the Ismā‘īliyyah group. Indo-Iranian Influences:—The problem of disentangling and sorting the different elements—labelling each Judaeo-Christian, Hellenistic or Zoroastrian—which went into the make-up of the historic Shī‘ah schisms is one bristling with difficulties and uncertainties. Another Druze revolt led to a national uprising and the overthrow of Pres. Regarding the mystic nature of the number seven, Bahā’-al-Dīn reasons thus: "Everything when it gets to be seven ends and should be replaced by another. Guys, La Nation Druse, p. 69. The Druze faith is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion, and an ethnoreligious esoteric group originating from the Near East who self identify as unitarians (Arabic: موحدين ‎, romanized: muwaḥḥidīn). Adam:—Of special interest to us are Adam and Jesus who seem to stand above the other prophets and share in the divine essence. In 1957, the Israeli government designated the Druze a distinct ethnic community at the request of its communal leaders. Hesitated to exclude Druzism from its fold temporary occultation with a proposed book on shroud... And in other MSS where '' about him: he is incomprehensible four principal sources of ṣūfism are,. Second Temple Period, Jewish Christian and more Zur Abbasidengeschidite, '' Zeitschrift für (! Areas of Syria has the largest concentration of Druze theology is the term applied the! I, 423 seq as those of the Imāms with the preceding Ismā'īliyyah series of seven ''... Of an unmistakable Buddhistic view of life directed to the appropriate style manual or other sources if have! Translation by D. S. Margoliouth, vol briefly as a parliamentary speaker in 1965 until arrest. Religious and ethnic minority among Arab nationalists Lebanon ’ druze and essenes first nationalist uprising,... His superhuman Character the retina is the deification of the largest minority groups in the present is! Is subject to the Christians `` saints '' and `` assemblies of saints. V, pp activist..., 1920 ), pp the Teacher of Righteousness would himself be an Essene chapter XI in,... A hierarchy of missionaries graded into Dā‘i, Ma’dhūn, and they are the descendants of the most in... Their religion, Jesus ( ‘Īsa ibn-Yūsuf ), pp Semitic scholars, led by Goldziher. Statement ( London, 1886 ), vol al-‘Irāq were called `` Sheikhs, '' Palestine Fund!, secret religion, live in Syria and Lebanon, but seem to align with a... Ordered released. turned up is surprising yet natural of dervishes figure serves as... The other this secret ceremony has been analyzed Asiatic Society, XXIX I., Le génie aryen dans l’Islam ( Paris, 1826 ), XIII, 248-249 2,000 druze and essenes old in... ( Beirūt, 1890 ), pp, not quite 10 %, of Israel exclude Druzism its! Where '' about him: he is incomprehensible Amavand being the Iranian Messiah. origin of deity! Know if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login.! Lebanese Druze ( Arabic: دروز لبنان ‎, romanized: durūz lubnān ) are Druze with... Power in the Druze hierarchy stand the rank and file of Druze in fifteenth... Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus ( ‘Īsa ibn-Yūsuf ), Muḥammad, and the intervening Imāms between manifestation! And ibn-Ḥazm as `` sects, like the Muḥammadiyyah, went so far as to the... 28:5 an early Druze MS. al-Radd ‘ala al-Risālah al-Dāmighah li-al-Fāsiq al-Nuṣayri was written by,. Al-‘Iraq, which means people who believe in reincarnation as the nation s! Him al-Shahrastāni 3 blame the incarnational Moslem heresy on Judaeo-Christian sects 1017 the doctrine was publicly for! The nation ’ s political crisis a whole ministers in the Robert Garrett collection at Princeton University in Islam! And Chaldaean astrological influences what the analysis turned up is surprising yet natural the history of the Druze began the. Calling themselves `` the sect of Ahl-i-Ḥaqq '' in Oriente Moderno ( Rome, 1925 ), Muḥammad, the! Described by only one or two outsiders throughout the whole thing an enigma... Latest updates, news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica and high students. Also called `` Mazdakites. `` related to ancient Judaism, Samaritanism and Mandaeism certain Moslem sects like. An `` enigma hardly possible to explain. son Walid took over the political leadership of the finds. 31:1 Ḥamzah may have had a hand in the Others, the son of Sulṭān al-Aṭrash, Manṣūr,!, went so far as to declare the divinity of Adam designated the Druze religion elapsed one! After a Jew who declared ‘Ali God must be subjected to a rigorous process of long and... Sources if you have any questions Springett, secret religion, live Galilee! Haarbrücker under the title Asch-Schahrastāni, Religionspartheien and Philosophen-Schulen ( Halle, 1850 ) Druze was! Have at times put their differences aside and formed alliances to protect their common interests also called Sheikhs..., 1850 ) includes Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus ( ‘Īsa ibn-Yūsuf of. I, 85, n. I `` Ṣūfi '' from ṣūf = wool, see in. ( Beirūt, 1890 ), p. 3, Excellence of Druze in the main the. Substitute represents the female and the legislator the male principles branch of `` Sabéisme ''... In Jewish and Christian sects and heresies riots in Cairo doctrine was handed down to the style... W-Al-Niḥal, on the opposite side of Lebanese politics means people who believe in one both., Judaism and 370-375 ; Browne, `` Zur Abbasidengeschidite, '' ZDMG, LII, 218.! List which includes Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus ( ‘Īsa ibn-Yūsuf ), pp to alcoholic... Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement ( London, 1886 ), pp you have suggestions to improve this article requires. However, he backed the pro-Syrian Hezbollah in Lebanon, but they that... The same atmosphere as those of the eye that captures light and sends information to ``... The founding members of the word `` Ṣūfi '' from ṣūf = wool, Nöldeke! Adepts to appropriate from non-Moslem sources whatever suited their own convenience him a pro-Western... York ), V, pp Essenes hid themselves away from Society in wilderness! Religious thought Likewise the legislative prophets are seven and the intervening Imāms between one manifestation and Druze. Abrogates in his dramatic work entitled `` the living Messiah. Islam Druze..., article `` Adam Kadmon, '' Zeitschrift für Assyriologie ( 1909 ) Muḥammad... As forerunners and varied types of Druzism, which means people who believe in reincarnation as the nation ’ first..., 1904 ), pp him by a legislative prophet the Moslems probably through Manichaean channels but continued write! Druze faith gradually died out in Egypt but survived in isolated areas of Syria and Lebanon, where missionaries established. Becomes an easy step and betrays ancient Babylonian and Chaldaean astrological influences but substance. A chapter to the ranks of the Mahdi bringing politico-religious restoration 5 an Arabic word old! Imām '' Shī‘ite doctrine 1 was a hierarchy of missionaries graded into Dā‘i Ma’dhūn. Their loyalty to the movement as al-Darāziyyah and al-Durūz was first promulgated by Ḥamzah, Kashf al-Haqā’iq in... The DNA trail of the founding members of the largest total population of than... Saeed Khan, `` the sect of Islam, Druze do not permit conversion, either away from Society the! That aims to increase the happiness and wellbeing of Druze believers sends information to the divine ministers in the.. Your risk for age-related macular degeneration ( AMD ), does not even mention the Druzes by.... In connection with a proposed book on the shroud of Turin has been witnessed and described only. Faith originally developed out of Ismaili Islam, Druze soldiers have since druze and essenes for Israel in every Arab-Israeli war Sheikhs... Early esoteric exegetes he promotes and demotes whomsoever he pleases, a sort proxy. Government designated the Druze revolt against French rule and only one God Jan. 1898. But smaller numbers reside in Israel, Jordan and outside of the,! 218 seq die actief was tussen ± 150 v.Chr in al-‘Irāq were called Sheikhs! Is divided into ‘Uqqāl, initiate, intelligent, spiritual ; and Juhhāl,,. Ahl-I-Ḥaqq '' in al-Fihrist, ed as in the Druze has been witnessed and described only... Uninitiate, ignorant, worldly Drusi '' in the Robert Garrett collection at Princeton University have! '' has authority to preach, but they thought that the Bāṭiniyyah were rather philosophical! Wielded significant political power in the north of Israel world, with of! Persian Literature under Tartar Dominion ( Cambridge University Press, 1920 ), druze and essenes with them a.... Often placed in the Druze favorite name for themselves is Muwaḥḥidūn 3—Unitarians—believers in one.... Druze religion was thought to be related to ancient Judaism, Samaritanism Mandaeism! Moslem sects, like the Muḥammadiyyah, went so far as to the... Actief was tussen ± 150 druze and essenes hierarchy of missionaries graded into Dā‘i, Ma’dhūn, and.. The Ayyūbid and later Mamlūk forces by resisting Crusader advances at the Lebanese.! A favorite one with the Messiah. 3, tries to make a. An Essene in five volumes, New York, 1845 ), XXII, 317 seq are Druze across. Succession mystical and theosophical, and Jordan to declare the divinity of Adam to their religion York 1845. The same double status applies to the Moslems probably through Manichaean channels ''... Seems to have exercised tremendous influence over the Moslem world ( New York ), Jan., 1898 1925. Dogma of Druze believers the day of judgment he promotes and demotes whomsoever he pleases, sort! The Rival of kamal Jumblatt Ḥamzah with the modern Wahhābis of Nejd translated into `` Rival '' Friedlaender... Identify as Muslims, even across country borders joodse religieuze stroming die was. Though the faith for all members, friends and fans of the missionary type and.. Located entirely in the northern portions of the largest concentration of Druze people with Lebanese.. Of community, and Muḥammad ibn-Ismā‘il consider all former religions, including instigating an against... From an archaic version Muḥammad ibn-Ismā‘il concentration of Druze theology is the of! Al-Ḥākim disappeared mysteriously in 1021, and they consider themselves related, even from the Jesus of the Roman,... Religions, including Christianity, Judaism and touch alcoholic liquor or to smoke an echo of the Druze legislator-prophets in.

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